ARTICLE III From the summit of the range of mountains mentioned in Article II, to Tandjong Datoe on the west coast of Borneo, the boundary line shall follow the watershed of the rivers running to the northwest and west coasts, north of Tandjong Datoe, and of those running to the west coast south of Tandjong Datoe, the south coast, and the east coast of 4 degree 10’ north latitude. ARTICLE IV From 4 degree 10’ north latitude on the east coast of the boundary line shall be continued eastward along that parallel, across the island of Sebittik: that portion of the island situated to the north of that parallel shall belong unreservedly to the British North Borneo company, and the portion south of that parallel to the Netherlands. ARTICLE V The exact positions of the boundary line, as described in the four proceeding Articles, shall be determined hereafter by mutual agreement, at such times as the Netherlands and British Governments may think fit.

ARTICLE VI The navigation of all rivers flowing into the sea between Batoe Tinagat and the River Sibocke shall be free, except for the transport of war material; and no transport duties shall be levied on other goods passing up those rivers.

ARTICLE VII The population of Boelongan shall be allowed to collect jungle produce in the territory between the Simengaris and the Tawao Rivers for fifteen years from the date of the signature of the present Convention, free from any tax or duty.

ARTICLE VIII The present Convention shall be ratified, and it shall come into force three months after the exchange of the ratifications, which shall take place at London, one month, or sooner if possible after the said Convention shall have received the approval of the Netherlands State-General.

In wi tnes s whereof the Undersigned have signed the present, and have affixed thereto their seals. Done at London, in duplicate, this 20th day of June, 1891. Commentary: This treaty was signed by Salisbury for Britain and C De Bylandt for the Netherlands. With this Treaty, the Netherlands recognised Sarawak as an independent sovereign country.

This Treaty became the basis for the delineation of Sarawak’s border with Kalimantan when Indonesia succeeded to the territorial rights of Netherlands over this region after WWII. KING EDWARD VII QUICK TO RECOGNISE THE RAJAH OF SARAWAK The Rajah of Sarawak was given preference over princes of India before the King, 1901.

When King Edward came to the throne in 1901, one of the things in which he was quick to show an interest was the affairs of Sarawak and the status of its ruler, and after making full enquiries, he decided that the Rajah of Sarawak should have been given precedence at the English Court immediately after the ruling Princes of India, but his sons’ Sarawak titles were not recognised and they were not allowed to be present at Court until 1913 in the reign of King George V.

On receiving the news, the Rajah was elated since at last his rank at Court and in the Empire had been confirmed and with it automatically went the right to a 19-gun salute.

Commentary: Charles Brooke was euphoric at receiving the news as mentioned in his consort’s book, Ranee Margaret of Sarawak, My Life in Sarawak, London, 1913, p.311).